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Different types of waste

There are several types of waste that can be categorized into the following categories:

  • Liquid or solid household waste
    The wastes from residential areas are stated as domestic waste waters. These wastewaters come from our day-to-day household and include those from food preparation, washing, bathing, and toilet usage. These wastes are mainly household or can also be classified as black bag waste which comes from the house. These wastes are wet and solid type in nature they can consist of Vegetables, glass bottles, leftover food, etc.

Liquid or solid waste

  • Hazardous waste
    Hazardous waste can pose a serious threat to humans and other living beings. Hazardous waste produces from many sources, ranging mostly from industrial manufacturing processes and production, to wastes from batteries, and comes in many forms, including liquids, solids gases, and sludges.

Hazardous Waste

  • Medical/Clinical Waste
    Wastes are generated from health care facilities such as hospitals, physician’s offices, Dental clinics, blood banks, medical research facilities, veterinary hospitals/clinics, and laboratories. Sharps-inflicted injuries on the bodies. Toxic exposure to pharmaceutical products, antibiotics, and cytotoxic drugs. Chemical infection arises out of disinfection, sterilization, or waste treatment process. Thermal injuries and infection occur due to open contact with burning and the operation of medical waste incinerators and radiation.

Medical Clinical Waste

  • Electrical waste (E-waste)
    Electronic or e-waste describes wastes produce from electrical or electronic devices. Used electronics which are refurbishment, reused, or resale recycling through material or disposal are also e-waste. Processing of e-waste in developing countries can lead to ill-effect on human health and environmental pollution.

Electronic scrap products such as CPUs, computer parts, bio-hazards machines, medical devices, heavy machinery, wires, etc.

It contains harmful material as lead, cadmium, beryllium, or brominated flame retardants. And can cause significant risk to the health of workers and their communities.

Electrical waste (E-waste)

  • Recyclable waste
    Recyclable waste is the items mainly used in households such as plastic waste, paper waste, glass waste, metal waste, etc. Waste management companies help in recycling this kind of product. Plastic waste is commonly recycled due to the extensive use of plastic in all types of products.

Recyclable waste

  • Constructions and demolition debris
    The waste is generated from the construction, renovation, repair, or demolition of houses, large buildings, roads, bridges, piers, dams repairs or construction, and road repairs. Usually, these wastes are bulky and heavy materials that takes time to dispose of the waste.

C&D waste consists of wood, gypsum, steel, concrete, plaster, and metal.

Constructions and demolition debris

  • Green waste
    Green waste, also known as “biological waste”, such as branches, leaves, grass, tree limbs, waste of vegetables, bread, and grains as well as paper waste.
  • Green waste can be classified as organic waste or waste from the forest, food market, or gardens, any biodegradable materials that grow in your garden are classed as green waste. Waste is of three types Liquid or solid waste, Hazardous waste, Medical/clinical waste, Electrical waste (E-waste), Recyclable waste, Construction, and demolition debris, non-degradable, and Green waste. This waste has to be disposed of separately, as at the later stage, there is too much waste collected and takes more time to segregate by the rag pickers or waste management, or its dumped nearby a city landfill.

Green Waste

Extended Producer Responsibility & Plastic Waste Management

Extended Producers Responsibility means the responsibility of a producer (including Brand-owners/Importers) for the environmentally sound management of the product until the end of its life.

Extended producer responsibility, refers to the responsibility for the management of the disposal of products by producers once those products are designated as no longer useful by consumers.

Our main objective is to develop an effective and efficient system that takes care of the collection, segregation, and transportation of the material to the waste disposal facility which is approved by the MPCB and CPCB as a PRO Agency. These materials are also used in cement kilns, pyrolysis, for road construction, and recycling centers, on the basis of their quality and price

Under EPR in accordance with PWM Rules 2016 (amendment 2018) PIBOMs (Producers, Importers and Brand Owners, Manufacturers) are given significant responsibility for the recycling or disposal of post-consumer waste.

What is PRO?

The waste generators such as brand owners/producers are required to collect back the end-of-life waste generated through their business. This responsibility is met through waste collection agencies that are recognized as Producer Responsibility Organizations (PRO).

Extended Producers Responsibility Activity Implementation

  1. The first step is to register with the CPCB/SPCB by submitting the necessary documents, which include an action plan, agreement, certificates, licenses, and so on.
  2. The following phase is an authorized waste management agency collecting the agreed volume of post-consumer plastic waste from the intended location over a one-year period and recycling or disposing of it securely in accordance with CPCB/SPCB norms.
  3. The waste collection agency will give evidence of waste collection operations in the form of appropriate papers.
  4. A quarterly report will be submitted to CPCB on behalf of PIBOMs.
  5. The agency will submit a final report to PIBOM after the activity is completed.

Post-Consumer Waste Management or Extended Producers Responsibility – Pictorial Flow Chart

What is EPR In India

EPR in plastic waste management in India

For operational convenience, TSPI has implemented a “Digital documentation system” that allows for the storage of all EPR-related documents as well as complete monthly reports on our Cloud Server, which can be accessed as needed while retaining traceability and avoiding duplication.

Related Documents:

MOEFCC Notification: https://cpcb.nic.in/displaypdf.php?id=cGxhc3RpY3dhc3RlL1BXTV9HYXpldHRlLnBkZg==

Guideline for disposal of Multi-Layered Plastic Waste:  https://cpcb.nic.in/uploads/plasticwaste/guidelines_nonrecyclable_fraction_24.04.2018.pdf

How is Multi-layered Plastic Currently Managed and the “Unrecyclable” Myth

What is MLP?

MLP stands for Multi-Layered Plastic. It is a type of plastic most commonly used for the packaging of food items such as chips, biscuits, chocolates, and other snacks. Mostly, MLP packets have two sheets of plastic enclosing a layer of aluminum, but technically MLP can be any material that has at least one layer of plastic.

These multiple layers prevent food contamination and help in transport and storage. Hence, this is the best way in which packaged food can reach people, say, food majors. But waste collectors and rag pickers typically don’t collect this waste, as it is an extremely low value (INR 2-4/Kg compared to INR 25-30/Kg for PET, for example) and is therefore doomed to litter our streets, dumps, and sewage canals.

How Much MLP Do We Generate?

(June 2019, ET article) According to a Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry study, it is estimated that the plastic-producing industry in India is estimated to grow to 22 million tonnes (MT) a year by 2020 from 13.4 MT in 2015 and nearly half of this is single-use plastic (majorly MLP).

(Dec 2019, HT article) Maharashtra Pollution Control Board data states that, of 23,600 metric tons (MT) of MLP waste accumulated in the state in 2019, 12,500MT has been collected by PROs and sent to cement industries or disposed of through a process called pyrolysis.

The remaining waste has either ended up burnt, at landfills or littering the land and natural water bodies.

How is MLP Currently Managed and the “Unrecyclable” Myth

It is widely believed by the government, manufacturers, brands, and consumers that the large amount of MLP and MLP waste being generated is “non-recyclable” due to its low value.

Due to this “myth”, MLP waste is either:

1) taken to cement kilns for co-processing or 2) mixed with bitumen for road construction, or it is also disposed of using 3) WTE (Waste to Energy) or 4)  Pyrolysis.

However, none of these methods are ideal or sustainable as they are either extremely polluting or cause an economic loss of the material (i.e. MLP).

It is untrue that MLP waste cannot be recycled. There is a fifth and ideal method- Waste to Granules (i.e. Recycling)

Recycling of MLP

The Shakti Plastic Industries has invested in the technology to recycle MLP and has the capacity to convert MLP waste into granules which are fit to be used for making a variety of products ranging from chairs, stools, benches, pallets, flower pots to much more!

In terms of benefit to the manufacturer, producers, and end consumers, recycled MLP pellets are far cheaper than those made from virgin plastic pellets apart from being sustainable, contributing to a circular economy, and ensuring that a large amount of untreated MLP plastic waste does not pollute our shared environment. 

Way Forward for Encouraging MLP Waste Recycling

In order to promote the recycling of MLP on a large scale, the industry needs the following:

  • Strict legislation
  • Appropriate Technology
  • Government support and subsidies
  • Zero custom duty on import of MLP recycling machinery and technology
  • Compulsory economic support through EPR by the brands/ manufacturers/ producers/ importers of products using MLP packaging.
  • Decentralized waste systems to ensure the greatest collection and transportation of MLP waste from areas of waste generation to the recyclers.

Challenges in Recycling MLP Waste

  • Highly power-intensive industry
  • Processes involve large water consumption and the requirement of an ETP plant
  • Large investments
  • Unavailability of appropriate technology on a large scale
  • Collection of MLP waste from areas of generation including rural and hard-to-reach areas
  • Quality control and standardization of MLP waste and resulting recycled plastic pellet

Benefits of MLP Recycling

  • Sustainable solution for managing the growing MLP waste
  • Manages a highly polluting type of plastic waste that is widely littered and left uncollected
  • Contributes to a Circular Economy
  • Economically beneficial
  • Resource recovery
  • Employment and Job Creation
  • Incentivization for and upliftment of informal workers through the chain
  • Supports formalization, organization, structuring, and growth for all the stakeholders in the recycling chain in India (waste workers and rag-pickers, aggregators, recyclers, PROs, etc.)


Plastic Recycling, Challenges, Stages In Recycling And Its Benefits

Plastic is supposed to be the greatest product of the 20th century, but improper disposal and management of plastic made it a bigger issue. Plastic can not be disposed but it can be recycled again and again and again.

At The Shakti Plastics Industries, we are committed to creating a better future for the world by recycling even the non-recyclable. Whether it’s a mold from a store, pens from a school, or plastic gloves from a manufacturing facility, we collect and recycle almost any form of plastic waste. With end-to-end waste management services that cater to individual collectors, companies, retailers, manufacturers, municipalities, NGOs, and small businesses, we are poised to transform millions of tonnes of plastic waste into new products of great value. Proud Recycler.

What is Plastic Recycling?

  • Plastic Recycling is the process of recovering scrap or waste plastic and reprocessing the material into useful products
  • Very few types of plastic waste which can not be recycled are sent to cement kilns, Road Construction & Pyrolysis

Challenges in plastic recycling

  • Lack of awareness leads to the mixing of all kinds of waste
  • Due to plastic density, it occupies more space and costs double to transport
  • Plastic requires manual segregation before recycling. Lack of infrastructure and government policies
  • Myths and lack of recycled plastic products acceptance in-market lead more plastic waste to landfills

Stages in plastic waste recycling

Recycling of plastic waste is consist of the following stages:

  • Collection: Plastic waste is collected from various collection sources like Rag Pickers, municipalities, Societies, Kabadiwalas, and Awareness Drives.
  • Sorting: Collected plastic waste needs to be sorted accordingly so it can be processed further in the shredding machine
  • Washing: Sorted plastic waste usually contains dust, adhesive and more impurities that need to be washed away. This is done in the washing line at the recycling facility.
  • Shredding: Once segregated and washed now plastic is shredded into smaller pieces by the process of shredding.
  • Identification and Classification of Plastic: After shredding, proper testing of the plastic pellets are conducted in order to ascertain their quality and class.
  • Extruding: Running on the line next step is extrusion, In this process, shredded plastic waste is melted and extruded, and converted to plastic granules. Also In order to enhance the properties of the material, even some extra filling is added to the material

Recycling Process



Processes of Recycling & Disposal Of Non-Recyclable
plastic recycling process

Very few types of plastic waste which can not be recycled are sent to cement kilns, Road Construction & Pyrolysis

  • Pyrolisis: Pyrolysis generally consists of heating the material above its decomposition temperature, and breaking chemical bonds in its molecules.
  • Cement Kilns: Plastic waste that can not be recycled anymore are sent to cement kilns.

Advantages of Plastic Recycling

Knowing the process of recycling it does not only helps us manage waste but also contributes to a better and safer environment.

  • The huge amount of plastic production: Plastic is used for manufacturing households and goods which are used on a daily basis, there is more plastic in our garbage than any other type of plastic. Recycling puts the same plastic waste in the circular economy.
  • Conservation of Energy and Natural Resources: virgin plastic requires resources like chemicals and production energy recycled plastic granules can full fill the demand for plastic granules for plastic products manufacturing and helps conserve energy and natural resources.
  • Clears Landfill Space:  Plastic waste accumulated makes huge piles of plastic waste on the landfill as the plastic takes ages to decompose fills up landfills which further causes the release of toxic air and pollution leading to diseases.

Plastic recycling not only promotes proper waste management of plastic waste but also helps conserve the environment.



Shakti Plastics Industries is committed to making a difference in society.

We have taken a few small steps to ensure we can make a change and bring smiles to the faces of many people across the nation, today.

We’ve built borewells in various villages to make water more accessible to people. We engaged tribals and the underprivileged sections of the society and educated them in Computers, Sewing, Electrical courses, and Personality Development.

We’ve conducted various tree plantation drives to ensure the country becomes more green. We provide educational and medical aids to various sections of the society and have a well-equipped medical center run by our Charitable Trust, Smt. RADHA DEVI PODDAR TRUST.


Incepted in 1969, The Shakti Plastics Industries is a Mumbai based company that recycles all types of plastic waste, and one of the leading recyclers of polymer waste in India. Established by Mr. Vishwanath Poddar, the company has been built over a legacy of 3 generations, spearheaded by leaders who have shown relentless passion and responsibility towards building and sustaining a clean and safe environment for our future generations as well as for Mother Earth.

For the past 5 decades, Shakti Plastics has been recognized widely as a pioneer in the field of plastic waste management that started off by manufacturing all types of reprocessed plastic granules from waste or scrap.